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Tunis by Braun & Hogenberg.

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

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Tunes Urbs - Tunetis Urbis, ac Novae Eius Arcis, et Guletae, quae Philippo Hispan Regi Parent ..., 1575.

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Item Number:  10215
Category:  Antique maps > Africa
References: Van der Krogt 4 - 4517; Fauser - 14325; Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg - p. 198

Old map by Braun & Hogenberg, showing the siege of Tunis in 1574 by Philip II of Spain.

TRANSLATION OF CARTOUCHE BOTTOM LEFT: View of the town and new Tunis fortress and La Goulette - the latter already taken by force by King Philip of Spain. Occupied by the Turks and Moors under Selim, the king of Thrace, it was stormed in July and August 1574 by Philip after encampments had been established.

CARTOUCHE BOTTOM RIGHT: Poem on the battles waged over Tunis, expressing hope for Philip's victory.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN : "Emperor Charles V desired to take the opportunity to rob the tyrannical enemy of all Christians of his power. After procuring in Barcelona only the very best of all that was required for war, he took to the seas with his army in 25 July in the year 1538 and, after crossing the Mediterranean, arrived at the formidable and mighty fortress of La Goulette. This he besieged with all his might, shot, stormed and captured, apprehending Barbarossa while fleeing, and to his pleasure, acquired the town of Tunis, which surrendered."

This depiction of Tunis shows the town under siege: the town is seen from the east, as well as the Gulf of Tunis, and the large stagnant lagoon (stagnum), today called El Bahira, in front of it. At both entrances to the sea the fortresses La Goulette and Nova Arx are found; the town is seen in the background.
Tunis, which was founded before the 9th century BC, was always an apple of discord due to its location. Following multiple Arabic and African rulers the Europeans attempted to capture the town for the first time in 1270. Yet it wasn't until 1535 that this could be accomplished, by Charles V, who with it achieved an important victory over the Ottoman Empire; he was even able to defeat the Turk's most formidable leader, Khair ad-Din, otherwise known as Barbarossa. In 1569 the Turks captured Tunis under Kilic Ali Pasha, then lost it in 1573 to Philip II of Spain and won it back in 1574. (Taschen)

This plate is engraved after an Italian engraving L'Ultimo disegno dove si dimostra il vero sito di Tunisi et la Goletta with a representation of Emperor Charles V besieging Tunis, 1535. (British Museum, no. 64162).

Date of the first edition: 1575
Date of this map: 1575

Copper engraving
Size (not including margins): 32.5 x 41.5cm (12.7 x 16.2 inches)
Verso text: Latin
Condition: Excellent.
Condition Rating: A+
References: Van der Krogt 4, 4517; Fauser, 14325; Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg, p.198.

From: Civitates Orbis Terrarum, ... Part 2: De Praecipuis, Totius Universi Urbibus, Liber Secundus. Köln, Gottfried von Kempen, 1575. (Van der Krogt 4, 41:1.2)

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.