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Oxford and Windsor Castel, by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg. 1623

OXFORD

TRANSLATION OF CAPTION: Oxford, well-known town in England. Embellishes the northern bank of the Thames by its attractive, healthy location.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Oxford, known long ago as Bellositum due to its charming position, is a city on the northern bank of the River Thames [...] It is generally known that it has a salubrious and pleasant situation and also that the surrounding countryside provides everything in abundance. Oxford has a prestigious school, as all who have attended other schools in Europe will know."

The view shows Oxford from the north, ensconced in a broad landscape of gently rolling hills. Oxford is first mentioned in the so-called Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the year AD 912 and goes back to the founding of a convent by the Saxon nun Frideswide in the 8th century. Today St Frideswide is the patron saint of the city and the university. The University of Oxford is the oldest and, together with Cambridge, the most famous university in England. It developed out of several different schools, mostly monastic, whose existence is documented as far back as the early 12th century. The city's oldest college is University College, founded in 1249.

WINDSOR CASTLE

CAPTION: Windsor, the famous English castle. Remarkable for its pleasant surroundings, magnificent buildings, ornate royal tombs and the famous Order of the Garter.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Windsor is a royal castle in England, which, so it is believed, was first built in the time of King Arthur and extended by King Edward III, who added many new buildings. It is situated on a charming hill, eight miles from the capital of London. It is 410 paces from the Thames, which changes its course here from south to north. The castle is surrounded by an unbelievably charming and broad plain [...]. There huntsmen and the nobility go hunting with falcons."

The engraving shows a view of Windsor Castle seen from the north. In the foreground is a group of nobles, and just below the castle walls there is a hunting scene. Windsor Castle was built under William the Conqueror around 1070. The original wooden construction was placed on a man-made hill. The Round Tower was built on the same site one hundred years later, under Henry II. In 1350 King Edward III began reconstructing the castle, which lasted a total of 24 years. On the left are the royal apartments, and on the right St George's Chapel, built in the Gothic Perpendicular style. The annual meeting of the Order of the Garter, founded by Edward III in 1348, is celebrated in this chapel. Today Windsor Castle is one of the official residences of the British monarchy. (Taschen)


Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

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Oxonium Nobile Anglie Oppidum [on sheet with] Vindesorium Celeberrimum Angliae Castrum ...

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Item Number:  22359
Category:  Antique maps > Europe > British Isles

Old map with two views of Oxford and Windsor Castel, by Braun and Hogenberg, after G. Hoefnagel.

Date of the first edition: 1575
Date of this map: 1623

Copper engraving
Size: 36 x 48cm (14 x 18.7 inches)
Verso text: Latin
Condition: Uncoloured, excellent.
Condition Rating: A
References: Van der Krogt 4, 3253; Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg, p.138.

From: Civitates Orbis Terrarum, ... Part 2: De Praecipuis, Totius Universi Urbibus, Liber Secundus. Köln, Petrus von Brachel, 1623. (Van der Krogt 4, 41:1.2)

OXFORD

TRANSLATION OF CAPTION: Oxford, well-known town in England. Embellishes the northern bank of the Thames by its attractive, healthy location.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Oxford, known long ago as Bellositum due to its charming position, is a city on the northern bank of the River Thames [...] It is generally known that it has a salubrious and pleasant situation and also that the surrounding countryside provides everything in abundance. Oxford has a prestigious school, as all who have attended other schools in Europe will know."

The view shows Oxford from the north, ensconced in a broad landscape of gently rolling hills. Oxford is first mentioned in the so-called Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the year AD 912 and goes back to the founding of a convent by the Saxon nun Frideswide in the 8th century. Today St Frideswide is the patron saint of the city and the university. The University of Oxford is the oldest and, together with Cambridge, the most famous university in England. It developed out of several different schools, mostly monastic, whose existence is documented as far back as the early 12th century. The city's oldest college is University College, founded in 1249.

WINDSOR CASTLE

CAPTION: Windsor, the famous English castle. Remarkable for its pleasant surroundings, magnificent buildings, ornate royal tombs and the famous Order of the Garter.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Windsor is a royal castle in England, which, so it is believed, was first built in the time of King Arthur and extended by King Edward III, who added many new buildings. It is situated on a charming hill, eight miles from the capital of London. It is 410 paces from the Thames, which changes its course here from south to north. The castle is surrounded by an unbelievably charming and broad plain [...]. There huntsmen and the nobility go hunting with falcons."

The engraving shows a view of Windsor Castle seen from the north. In the foreground is a group of nobles, and just below the castle walls there is a hunting scene. Windsor Castle was built under William the Conqueror around 1070. The original wooden construction was placed on a man-made hill. The Round Tower was built on the same site one hundred years later, under Henry II. In 1350 King Edward III began reconstructing the castle, which lasted a total of 24 years. On the left are the royal apartments, and on the right St George's Chapel, built in the Gothic Perpendicular style. The annual meeting of the Order of the Garter, founded by Edward III in 1348, is celebrated in this chapel. Today Windsor Castle is one of the official residences of the British monarchy. (Taschen)


Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.