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Autun and Nevers by Braun & Hogenberg

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

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Augustodunum [on sheet with] Noviodunum - Georg Braun & Frans Hogenberg.

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Item Number:  20414
Category:  Antique maps > Europe > France

Old map with two bird's-eye plans by Braun and Hogenberg: Autun and Nevers.

AUTUN

CARTOUCHE: Augustodunum, the Flavia of the Aedui, in French Autun, town in Burgundy.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Autun lies at the foot of several mountains, it is a town in Burgundy with only a few buildings, except for the spot where the castle and the church of Saint-Lazare stand. This Lazarus was the brother of Mary Magdalene, who, after being resurrected from the dead by Christ, came to France to spread the Gospel after Christ's Ascension. His body was buried in this church and reverently preserved as a relic. [...] The other, separate part of the town, now called Marchaux in French, was formerly the champ de mars."

The bird's-eye view from the west depicts a spacious tract of land bordered by city walls on the far side of the small Arroux River. Only two areas show higher-density development. The first is the oval district of Marchaux in the centre, whose exits are marked by two Roman gateways. Autun, which originally lay on the long-distance Via Agrippa trade route, was founded by Emperor Augustus following the suppression of the Gauls in 10 BC. Its Roman remains include the Temple of Janus (bottom right) and the pyramidal de Couhard tomb (top edge). The second, more densely settled quarter is the upper, or episcopal, town with the cathedral of Saint-Lazare. During the Middle Ages the relics of St Lazarus attracted flocks of lepers, who made the pelgrimage to Autun in the hope of a rapid cure.

Made after a woodcut from Belleforest, La Cosmographie universelle, Paris, 1575.

NEVERS

CARTOUCHE: Noviodunum, according to Vigenerus in the seventh book of Caesar's Bellum Gallico the city of the Aedui, locally called Nevers.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Noviodum, an important city in the Duchy of Nevers, lies on the Loire and takes its name from its location, since donum once meant mountain or hill in Old French. For it lies on a hill where the Nièvre flows into the Loire. All the buildings are well protected by a secure ring wall, commanding towers and a very deep moat."

This bird's-eye view shows the Burgundian city situated at the confluence of the Nièvre with the Loire and featuring numerous narrow alleys that wind through the elongated Old Town. Archaeological finds allow the city to be traced back to a settlement in Gallo-Roman times. Nevers was made a bishopric in the late 5th century AD; in the Middle Ages it became the capital of the County and in 1538 of the Duchy of Nivernais. The Palais Ducale in the city centre is one of the most important feudal edifices in central France. Situated beneath the Ducal Palace is the cathedral of Saint-Cyr-et-Sainte-Juliette, which features two choirs. Through the marriage of Henrietta of Cleves to Luigi Gonzaga in the second half of the 16th century, the Duchy of Nevers passed to the Italian Gonzaga family. During this period the city lay on an important trade route and was known for its cattle breeding and craft industries. Nevers would also owe the subsequent development of its prestigious faience industry to the Gonzaga family: since the 17th century it has been regarded as the ceramics capital of France. (Taschen)

Made after a woodcut from Belleforest, La Cosmographie universelle, Paris, 1575.

Copper engraving
Size: 34 x 42cm (13.3 x 16.4 inches)
Verso text: Latin
Condition: Old coloured.
Condition Rating: A
References: Van der Krogt 4, 319; Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg, p.215.

From: Civitates Orbis Terrarum. . Liber tertius. Köln, G. Kempen, 1581-88. (Koeman, B&H3)

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.