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Orléans - Bourges by Braun & Hogenberg 1582

ORLÉANS

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Orléans is a city in France on the Loire. In the direction of Paris, where the city spreads out upon a hill, stood the Church of the Holy Cross before its recent destruction by the Huguenots. Orléans has clean, healthy air and is graced with excellent schools. Law is the subject most commonly studied. So many erudite men have gone forth from these schools that there is not enough space here to tell of them all. Among others the important Bertrandus, Archbishop of Bordeaux, who later became Pope in Rome and took on the name Clement V."

Seen from the south, the view shows Orléans on the far side of the Loire. In the centre, rising above the city, is Sainte-Croix cathedral, which was built around the end of the 13th century. The destruction referred to in the text can be dated to 24 March 1568; reconstruction was begun under Henry IV around 1600. Since the early 14th century Orléans had played a key role in armed conflicts, which came to a climax when the city was besieged by the English and subsequently liberated by Joan of Arc in 1429. The University d'Orléans was founded in 1235; 200 years after Pope Clement V, John Calvin also studied law here.

BOURGES

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Today one can still see the entire wall of the Old Town of Avaricum, which is so strongly fortified that no tools can pull it down, so that it must therefore be left standing. Bourges was expanded by degrees. At one place towards the southeast there is an opening, secured by strong walls and fortified ramparts. From them one can see a long way, but in particular there is a high tower here from which one can see four miles around and which is therefore called the Great Tower."

The view shows Bourges from the south on the far side of the River Auron. The name of the city is derived from the Celtic tribe of the Bituriges, whose chief town, Avaricum, was here. The well-fortified walls, the remains of which can still be seen today, date from this time. In 1137 Louis VII was crowned king of France in Bourges. Under him and his successor Philip II the city was expanded and a new fortification system was built. The fortress-like Great Tower (12) was destroyed in 1653 in the course of the revolt against absolutism known as the Fronde. Towards the end of the 12th century, construction began on the cathedral of Saint-Étienne (9), one the the earliest examples of High Gothic architecture, with stained-glass windows from the 13th century. The left side of the view is mainly dominated by the palace of Jacques Coeur (5). Coeur was an important merchant and Finance Minister under Charles II. (Taschen)


Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

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Orleans [on sheet with:] Bourges.

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Item Number:  894
Category:  Antique maps > Europe > France

Old map with two bird's-eye views by Braun and Hogenberg: Orleans and Bourges, engraved after Georg Hoefnagel.

Date of the first edition: 1575
Date of this map: 1582

Copper engraving
Size: 37 x 46.5cm (14.4 x 18.1 inches)
Verso text: Latin
Condition: Contemporary old coloured, excellent.
Condition Rating: A
References: Van der Krogt 4, 3201; Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg, p.139.

From: Civitates Orbis Terrarum, Liber Secundus. Köln, Gottfried von Kempen, 1582. (Van der Krogt 4, 41:1.2)

ORLÉANS

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Orléans is a city in France on the Loire. In the direction of Paris, where the city spreads out upon a hill, stood the Church of the Holy Cross before its recent destruction by the Huguenots. Orléans has clean, healthy air and is graced with excellent schools. Law is the subject most commonly studied. So many erudite men have gone forth from these schools that there is not enough space here to tell of them all. Among others the important Bertrandus, Archbishop of Bordeaux, who later became Pope in Rome and took on the name Clement V."

Seen from the south, the view shows Orléans on the far side of the Loire. In the centre, rising above the city, is Sainte-Croix cathedral, which was built around the end of the 13th century. The destruction referred to in the text can be dated to 24 March 1568; reconstruction was begun under Henry IV around 1600. Since the early 14th century Orléans had played a key role in armed conflicts, which came to a climax when the city was besieged by the English and subsequently liberated by Joan of Arc in 1429. The University d'Orléans was founded in 1235; 200 years after Pope Clement V, John Calvin also studied law here.

BOURGES

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Today one can still see the entire wall of the Old Town of Avaricum, which is so strongly fortified that no tools can pull it down, so that it must therefore be left standing. Bourges was expanded by degrees. At one place towards the southeast there is an opening, secured by strong walls and fortified ramparts. From them one can see a long way, but in particular there is a high tower here from which one can see four miles around and which is therefore called the Great Tower."

The view shows Bourges from the south on the far side of the River Auron. The name of the city is derived from the Celtic tribe of the Bituriges, whose chief town, Avaricum, was here. The well-fortified walls, the remains of which can still be seen today, date from this time. In 1137 Louis VII was crowned king of France in Bourges. Under him and his successor Philip II the city was expanded and a new fortification system was built. The fortress-like Great Tower (12) was destroyed in 1653 in the course of the revolt against absolutism known as the Fronde. Towards the end of the 12th century, construction began on the cathedral of Saint-Étienne (9), one the the earliest examples of High Gothic architecture, with stained-glass windows from the 13th century. The left side of the view is mainly dominated by the palace of Jacques Coeur (5). Coeur was an important merchant and Finance Minister under Charles II. (Taschen)


Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.