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Werden and Essen, by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg. 1599

WERDEN

CARTOUCHE: A faithful view of the town of Werden.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Like many other German towns, the city of Werden arose out of a monastery, which was founded there by St Ludger and built by the 42nd Abbot, William of Hardenberg, in 1370, and vested by Engelbert, Count of the Mark, with civic privileges and freedoms that it still holds today. The town owes the importance that it still possesses to this day wholly to this imposing and widely famed abbey."

Werden is seen from the northwest, coming from the direction of Essen, between the hills above the Ruhr. The castle, constructed around 1479, lies directly beside the bridge on the right. Werden's most striking building is the Benedictine abbey (here labelled Abbatia), around which the town originally sprang up. Founded by St Ludger c. AD 799, the monastery's first, Carolingian church was replaced in 1256-1275 by a new Romanesque abbey. Werden was chartered around 1317 and was subsequently fortified with ramparts and towers. Until 1803 the abbotts of the monastery were also the lords of the city, to whom the surrounding lands also belonged. Today Werden is a district of Essen with some 10,000 inhabitants. Since coal has been extracted here since the 16th century, Werden is also considered the birthplace of mining in the Ruhr.

ESSEN

CARTOUCHE: A faithful view of the city of Essen.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Essen is an imperial city under the rule of the Duke of Berg; it is famous for its nunnery and monastery, which the fourth bishop of Hildesheim, Altfrid, had erected on his paternal estates so that 52 holy virgins under the direction of a devout abbess could be instructed in devotion and held to it. Twenty canons also live there with their abbot, according to the rules adopted by the monks."

The plate shows a view of Essen from the southeast, seen from a cavalier perspective. The skyline is dominated by the church spires soaring above the densely packed houses inside the city walls, constructed in 1244: in the centre, the Gothic cathedral (Das Munster), which replaced the original convent church of c. AD 852; to the left, the former parish church of St John the Baptist (S. Iohan); and to the right, St Gertrude's (S. Geerth). Essen arose in 845 following the convent's founding by Altfrid, the later bishop of Hildesheim. The convent was a religious community of unmarried noblewomen, of whom only the abbess had to take a vow of chastity. The abbesses were of high social rank: the daughters and nieces of German emperors and kings. In 1216 they were made imperial princesses and accorded the same status as the abbot of nearby Werden Abbey. In 1377 Essen became a Free Imperial City, which led to a 200-year feud between the city and the abbesses for dominance in the region. Essen lies at the heart of the Ruhr Valley and was shaped by coal mining from the late 1700s until the 1900s. (Taschen)


Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, also known as the 'Braun & Hogenberg', is a six-volume town atlas and the most excellent book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun, a skilled writer, wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. Many plates were engraved after the original drawings of a professional artist, Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600). The first volume was published in Latin in 1572 and the sixth in 1617. Frans Hogenberg, a talented engraver, created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel made those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographers Daniel Freese and Heinrich Rantzau, who provided valuable geographical information. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used as references. Translations appeared in German and French, making the atlas accessible to a wider audience.

Since its original publication of volume 1 in 1572, the Civitates Orbis Terrarum has left an indelible mark on the history of cartography. The first volume was followed by seven more editions in 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599, and 1612. Vol.2, initially released in 1575, saw subsequent editions in 1597 and 1612. The subsequent volumes, each a treasure trove of historical insights, graced the world in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599, and 1606. The German translation of the first volume, a testament to its widespread appeal, debuted in 1574, followed by the French edition in 1575.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz, and Peter von Brachel, all of whom worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun, the author of the text accompanying the plans and views in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum, was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne, he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice, indicating his commitment to learning and intellectual pursuits. In 1561, he obtained his bachelor's degree; in 1562, he received his Magister Artium, further demonstrating his academic achievements. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he continued his studies in theology, gaining a licentiate in theology. His theological background likely influenced the content and tone of the text in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum, adding a unique perspective to the work.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s, Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named an engraver of numerous maps. In 1568, he was banned from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. He immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates, published in 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to large-scale projects like the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

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Civitatis Werdenae Exactiss: Descrip: [on sheet with:] Civitatis Essensis Exactiss. Descrip.

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Item Number:  24055 Authenticity Guarantee

Category:  Antique maps > Europe > Germany - Cities

Old, antique bird’s-eye view plan of Werden and Essen, by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg.

Title: Civitatis Werdenae Exactiss: Descrip: [on sheet with:] Civitatis Essensis Exactiss. Descrip.

Date of the first edition: 1581.
Date of this map: 1599.

Copper engraving, printed on paper.
Size (not including margins): 340 x 520mm (13.39 x 20.47 inches).
Verso: Latin text.
Condition: Uncoloured, excellent.
Condition Rating: A+.

From: Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Liber tertius. Köln, Bertram Buchholtz, 1599. (Koeman, B&H3)

WERDEN

CARTOUCHE: A faithful view of the town of Werden.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Like many other German towns, the city of Werden arose out of a monastery, which was founded there by St Ludger and built by the 42nd Abbot, William of Hardenberg, in 1370, and vested by Engelbert, Count of the Mark, with civic privileges and freedoms that it still holds today. The town owes the importance that it still possesses to this day wholly to this imposing and widely famed abbey."

Werden is seen from the northwest, coming from the direction of Essen, between the hills above the Ruhr. The castle, constructed around 1479, lies directly beside the bridge on the right. Werden's most striking building is the Benedictine abbey (here labelled Abbatia), around which the town originally sprang up. Founded by St Ludger c. AD 799, the monastery's first, Carolingian church was replaced in 1256-1275 by a new Romanesque abbey. Werden was chartered around 1317 and was subsequently fortified with ramparts and towers. Until 1803 the abbotts of the monastery were also the lords of the city, to whom the surrounding lands also belonged. Today Werden is a district of Essen with some 10,000 inhabitants. Since coal has been extracted here since the 16th century, Werden is also considered the birthplace of mining in the Ruhr.

ESSEN

CARTOUCHE: A faithful view of the city of Essen.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Essen is an imperial city under the rule of the Duke of Berg; it is famous for its nunnery and monastery, which the fourth bishop of Hildesheim, Altfrid, had erected on his paternal estates so that 52 holy virgins under the direction of a devout abbess could be instructed in devotion and held to it. Twenty canons also live there with their abbot, according to the rules adopted by the monks."

The plate shows a view of Essen from the southeast, seen from a cavalier perspective. The skyline is dominated by the church spires soaring above the densely packed houses inside the city walls, constructed in 1244: in the centre, the Gothic cathedral (Das Munster), which replaced the original convent church of c. AD 852; to the left, the former parish church of St John the Baptist (S. Iohan); and to the right, St Gertrude's (S. Geerth). Essen arose in 845 following the convent's founding by Altfrid, the later bishop of Hildesheim. The convent was a religious community of unmarried noblewomen, of whom only the abbess had to take a vow of chastity. The abbesses were of high social rank: the daughters and nieces of German emperors and kings. In 1216 they were made imperial princesses and accorded the same status as the abbot of nearby Werden Abbey. In 1377 Essen became a Free Imperial City, which led to a 200-year feud between the city and the abbesses for dominance in the region. Essen lies at the heart of the Ruhr Valley and was shaped by coal mining from the late 1700s until the 1900s. (Taschen)


Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, also known as the 'Braun & Hogenberg', is a six-volume town atlas and the most excellent book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun, a skilled writer, wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. Many plates were engraved after the original drawings of a professional artist, Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600). The first volume was published in Latin in 1572 and the sixth in 1617. Frans Hogenberg, a talented engraver, created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel made those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographers Daniel Freese and Heinrich Rantzau, who provided valuable geographical information. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used as references. Translations appeared in German and French, making the atlas accessible to a wider audience.

Since its original publication of volume 1 in 1572, the Civitates Orbis Terrarum has left an indelible mark on the history of cartography. The first volume was followed by seven more editions in 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599, and 1612. Vol.2, initially released in 1575, saw subsequent editions in 1597 and 1612. The subsequent volumes, each a treasure trove of historical insights, graced the world in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599, and 1606. The German translation of the first volume, a testament to its widespread appeal, debuted in 1574, followed by the French edition in 1575.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz, and Peter von Brachel, all of whom worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun, the author of the text accompanying the plans and views in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum, was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne, he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice, indicating his commitment to learning and intellectual pursuits. In 1561, he obtained his bachelor's degree; in 1562, he received his Magister Artium, further demonstrating his academic achievements. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he continued his studies in theology, gaining a licentiate in theology. His theological background likely influenced the content and tone of the text in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum, adding a unique perspective to the work.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s, Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named an engraver of numerous maps. In 1568, he was banned from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. He immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates, published in 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to large-scale projects like the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

References: Van der Krogt 4 - #4800; Taschen (Br. Hog.) - p.244