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Halle and Hildesheim, by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg.

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

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Salinae Saxoniae. Hall in Sachsen [on sheet with:] Hildesheim. - Georg Braun & Frans Hogenberg, 1596/97.

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Item Number:  24180
Category:  Antique maps > Europe > Germany - Cities

Antique map with two bird's-eye views by Braun and Hogenberg: Hall and Hildesheim, after drawings by Johann Mellinger.

HALLE

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Like Hall in Swabia and Hals in the County of Tyrol, Halle in Saxony takes its name from salt [from the Celtic root hall, meaning "salt"], since much salt is extracted there by evaporation. Halle lies on the Saale, a famous river in Saxony, which has its source in the well-known Fichtelgebirge or Tannengebirge Mountains, from where, along with three other rivers (namely the Eger, Main and Naab, whose waters wondrously flow out to the four corners of the earth), it passes many splendid cities, amongst others the city of Halle, before joining the Elbe."

Halle is presented in a view across the Saale from the west. Particulerly prominent on the skyline - hallmarked by the five church towers rising above the marketplace - are the Gothic parish church of Our Lady (Unser lieben Frauen) and the late Gothic "red tower" (Der rote Thurn), originally the bell tower of the church. Moritzburg castle on the far left of the picture was begun in 1484 and served as the residence of the Magdeburg archbishops. Rising further to the right is Halle cathedral (Der Thurm), consecrated in the 16th century as the collegiate church of the Magdeburg diocese. In 1531 Albert of Brandenburg commisioned the construction of the New Residence (Das new gebeu) for the university; the building is a masterpiece of the early Renaissance architecture in Germany. On account of its saline springs Halle was settled by Germanic tribes at a very early date. In AD 735 it was conquered by the Frank Charles Martel. Halle became part of the archbishopric of Magdeburg in 968 and was chartered in 1150. A city of economic importance due to its salt industry. Halle became a member of the Hanseatic League in 1281.

HILDESHEIM

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "The see of Hildesheim was the first to be instituted in Saxony by the mighty and most Christian Emperor and King Charlemagne, after he had conquered the Saxon Duke Widukind, in order to spread Christianity across the whole of Saxony and to convert the Saxons from their heathenism and pagan worship to the worship of the true God. In Elze, a delightful village at the confluence of the Saale and the Leine, he built a cathedral in honour of Peter the Apostle."

Hildesheim is seen in a very flat view from the southwest, looking across the city moat. The see created by Charlemagne around AD 800 in nearby Elze was transferred to Hildesheim by Louis the Pious in 815. In 852 construction began on the first cathedral, which continued to be enlarged and modified right up to the 1400s (Der Turm, centre right). The early Romanesque structure houses the world-famous bronze works of art installed by Bishop Bernward, namely the Bernward Doors of 1015 and the 380-m-high Pillar of Christ, which illustrates, in a spiralling frieze of bronze reliefs, episodes from the life of Christ, from his Baptism in the River Jordan to his Entry into Jerusalem. On the far left lies the Ottonian church of St Michael, and on the far right St Gotthard's basilica attached to the Benedictine monastery. (Taschen)

Date of the first edition: 1596
Date of this map: 1596

Copper engraving
Size: 36.5 x 52cm (14.2 x 20.3 inches)
Verso text: Latin
Condition: Uncoloured, excellent.
Condition Rating: A
References: Van der Krogt 4, 1702; Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg, p.361.

From: Urbium Praecipuarum Mundi Theatrum Quintum Auctore Georgio Braunio Agrippinate. Part 5. Köln, 1596/97. (Van der Krogt 4, 41:1.5)

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.