Nürnberg, Ulm, Salzburg, and Lindau, by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg.
Nurnberga Florentissimum Germaniae Emporium, ... [on sheet with] Ulma Imperialis in Suevia [and] Saltzburg Urbis Salisburgensis Genvina Descriptio [and] Lindaw - Lindoia, Oppidum Imperij insulare, ..., 1599.
Old, antique map with four bird's-eye views by Braun and Hogenberg: Nürnberg, Ulm, Salzburg and Lindau.
TRANSLATION OF CARTOUCHE TEXT: Nuremberg is a flourishing German trade city, widely famed for its excellent civic constitution, within the order of rank of burgraves in the Holy Empire, it occupies second place.
COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Nuremberg is highly famed in all Germany and Europe as an important trade city and is embellished with splendid public and private houses. Nuremberg possesses a very old royal fortress on a hill in the middle of the city: from there one has a view of the city and far beyond it. Nuremberg is thought to have taken its name from this fortress, which in old books is called Nordgauburg or Nordburg [...]. Many astute craftsmen and prudent merchants, very many fine and creative inventors and masters, live there."
Source: Hartmann Schedel, Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493. The way the city of Nuremberg is perceived has been shaped by the showy double-sided view in Hartmann Schedel's 1493 Chronicle. Schedel presented an ideal picture of a city well fortified with a double ring wall, full of beautifully ordered patrician houses and boasting the church of St Sebald and the church of St Lawrence. The high point of all this glorious urbanity in Schedel is definitely the imperial castle looming high above the city. In his text, Braun lays emphasis on the castle, which afforded superb views. The two pictures in Braun-Hogenberg, however, are not dominated by the steeply rising fortress; indeed the differences in elevation within the city have been considerably levelled off.
CARTOUCHE: Ulm, imperial city in Swabia, famed for strong walls and moats, its magnificent church and the nearby Danube.
COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Ulm is a splendid city in Swabia on the north bank of the Danube at its junction with the Iller and the Blau, whose additional waters make the Danube navigable. In this city there is a parish church that was built for the lofty sum of 900,000 gold guilders. The inhabitants live partly from commerce and partly from crafts. A special cloth made of linen, cotton and yarn is manufactured here, which they call fustian."
The view from Michelsberg hill shows Ulm well protected by high walls and its riverside location. The major landmarks are clearly captioned: Ulm's famous cathedral (Munster) - the largest parish church in Germany - and the Gothic town hall (Radhauss) slightly in front of it to the left can be easily identified, as can the smaller monasteries and the formidable city gates. Ulm reached its chief industries, but it also conducted a flourishing trade in iron, wine and wood. The city was also famous for its artists and craftsmen and for book printing.
The view is made after an etching by Georg Rieder the Younger, 1570.
CARTOUCHE: Faithful illustration of the city of Salzburg.
COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Salzbourg is surrounded by lakes, plains, hills and mountains. The lakes provide fertile meadows, the mountains fowling and hunting [...]. Franciscus Irenicus ranks Salzburg in first place amongst the five bishoprics of Bavaria and expressly praises this episcopal city, which Enea Silvio Piccolimini even calls a capital."
This is a highly schematic view of Salzburg from on top of Kapuzinerberg. The 11th-century fortress of Hohensalzburg, the largest castle complex in Europe, is easily recognizable in its dominant position above the city, whereas the buildings below are condensed into narrow blocks in favour of wide streets and squares. The impression of spaciousness does not correspond to the actual appearance of the city wedged between the Mönchsberg and the Kapuzinerberg. Braun refers to the legendary history of Salzburg, according to which it was founded by Julius Caesar. Salzburg is first mentioned in records in AD 755 as a trading settlement; in 996 it was granted the right to hold a market and mint its own coins; and in 1287 it received its municipal charter. From the 16th century onwards Salzburg played an important role as a city of trade and as the residence of the prince-archbishops. Following a devastating fire in 1598, Archbishop Wolf Dietrich of Raitenau had 55 town houses demolished in order to make space for a new cathedral and a grander street plan. The new cathedral in the Baroque style continues to leave its stamp on the face of Salzburg even today.
The view is made after a drawing by an unknown artist, 1553, which was used both for the woodcut in Münster's Cosmographia and the map of Austria in Ortelius's Theatrum orbis terrarum.
CAPTION: Lindau, imperial city on an island, surrounded all around by the waters of Lake Constance.
COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Lindau is an imperial city that lies below Bregenz on Lake Constance, and which is surrounded by water like an island and is connected to the mainland only by a masonry bridge of 290 paces. [...] To the west lies a large and wide field that in normal years can produce some 100 tuns of wine."
A number of Lindau's historic sights are clearly recognizable in the engraving. On the left is St Stephen's church, begun in the 12th century and frequently altered, and on the right, as part of the city defences, the "Thieves' tower" (Diebsturm) of 1380 with its four overhanging turrets. Directly to its left is St Peter's, Lindau's oldest church, which dates from the 12th century and contains valuable frecoes by Hans Holbein the Elder. Lindau goes back to a nunnery first mentioned in records in AD 822. The town was granted its charter before 1216 and from c. 1300 to 1803 was an imperial city.
The view is made after a woodcut by Jakob Clauser in Münster's Cosmographia, 1550.
Four bird's-eye views on one sheet: Nürnberg, Ulm, Salzburg and Lindau.
Date of the first edition: 1572
Date of this map: 1599
Size: 33.5 x 47cm (13.1 x 18.3 inches)
Verso text: Latin
Condition: Uncoloured, excellent.
Condition Rating: A
References: Van der Krogt 4, 3136 (First plate), State 1 (without privilege); Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg, p.90.
From: Civitates Orbis Terrarum, Liber Primus. Köln, Bertram Buchholtz, 1599. (Van der Krogt 4, 41:1.1)