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Bornes and Zahara by Braun & Hogenberg 1596-1640

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

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Bornnes [on sheet with] Zahara.

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Item Number:  21643
Category:  Antique maps > Europe > Spain and Portugal

Old map with three bird's-eye views: One of Bornos and two of Zahara de la Sierra by Braun and Hogenberg, after G. Hoefnagel, dated 1564.

BORNOS

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Andalusia is distinguished by famous cities, of which we have described a considerable number. When we were on the road to Malaga, we also drew this little town on account of its particular situation along the way. Bornos lies in a fertile region, which offer good opportunities for gardens and also for hunting by the nobility and others. Contrasting with this, however, is the very high, bleak and infertile mountain behind, which makes the fields and pastures of Bornos seem all the more fertile".

The Andalusian town of Bornos, situated on the Guadalete on the eastern slopes of the Sierra del Calvario near Arcos de la Frontera, can look back over an eventful history. The first humans settled here 30,000 years ago, followed by the Iberians and the Romans. Bornos saw a flowering under the Moors as a fortified town in the Fontanar region; the Castillo Palacio de los Ribera - the former Moorish Castillo del Fontanar - can still be visited today. In the 13th century Bornos was taken by Christian troops.

ZAHARA DE LA SIERRA

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Zahara's unique location has prompted Hoefnagel to present the small town and the castle from both sides. The castle sits on top of a high rock, built in primeval times and with a rich history at the time of the Granada War. For during the period in which the Christian princes in Spain were occupied with the Portugese War, they had an agreement with the Moors for a certain time. In the meantime, however, Zahara has been recovered from the Moors on account of the diplomacy and the experience of the Margrave of Cadiz, and placed back at the disposal of the Christians."

The fortress, once considered impregnable, is presented in a picturesque setting in two views - on the left from the southeast and on the right from the north. It lies on a sheer rock and dominates the Guadalete Valley. Zahara de la Sierra was founded by the Arabs in the 8th century. In Moorish times the town, which consisted primarily of white buildings (a fact of which the person who coloured the engraving was evidently unaware), was an important station on the road to Granada. The Christians succeeded in taking Zahara in 1483. The ruins and the square keep of the 12th-century Moorish fortress can still be seen today. (Taschen)

Date of the first edition: 1596
Date of this map: 1596-1623

Copper engraving
Size: 35 x 48cm (13.7 x 18.6 inches)
Verso text: Latin
Condition: Old coloured, small repair at lower centrefold.
Condition Rating: A
References: Van der Krogt 4, 567; Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg, p.360.

From: Civitates Orbis Terrarum, ... Part 5. Köln, 1596-1623.

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.