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Orvieto - Lauretum by Braun & Hogenberg 1581-88

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

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Orvieto [on sheet with] Lauretum.

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Item Number:  2673
Category:  Antique maps > Europe > Italy - Cities

Old map with two bird's-eye views on one sheet: Orvieto and Loreto, by Braun & Hogenberg.

ORVIETO

TRANSLATION OF CARTOUCHE TEXT: Orivetum, in Italian Orvieto, a town in the well-known Italian region of Tuscia.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Orvieto is a city in the heart of Etruria, lying on the flat top of a vast rocky plateau in a range of steep hills. It has no city walls but instead is surrounded by craggy and high scarps. There is an extremely sumptuous cathedral there whose façade is adorned with celebrated marble statues, sculpted by the greatest artists. Among other things, they show the story of the rib that was taken from Adam by the Supreme Creator in order to create Eve."

This is a view of Orvieto from the southwest, showing the distinctive city rock and characteristic dunastic towers. The magnificent façade of the cathedral of Santa Maria is easily recognizable on the right. Its construction was begun in 1290 following the Miracle of Bolsena (1293), in which blood dripped out of a consecrated host during transubstantiation. Among other things, this miracle gave rise to the feast of Corpus Christi. Orvieto probably developed out of the Etruscan city of Velzna, which was captured by the Romans in 264 BC. They subsequently called it Urbs vetus ("Old City"), which then became Orivetum, and Orvieto.

LORETO

CARTOUCHE: Loreto, famous town near Recanati, adorned by an ancient church dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Loreto is renowned throughout the Christian world as a place of pilgrimage; it lies on the hill dedicated to Our Lady of Loreto, and is surrounded by mighty walls that contain a village inhabited by no more than innkeepers, hostlers and tavern servants of all kinds - with the exception of those who come here daily from all over Europe, especially in spring and autumn, to fulfil their vow. The entire sanctuary is so well protected by thick walls and all possible weapons that it is capable not only of defending itself but also, for instance, of counter attacking, for example by firing guns, so that it will never again be plundered and destroyed by pirates, as once by the Turks."

Loreto is shown from the southwest. Inside the imposing town walls there are a few houses grouped around the basilica. Here stands the Santa Casa, the Holy House, which is said to have been brought to Loreto from Nazareth by angels in the years 1294. It is believed to be the house in which Mary was born and in which the Annunciation by the angel took place. Loreto is still an important place of pilgrimage today.

Copper engraving after Georg Hoefnagel, 1577.
Size: 34.5 x 49cm (13.5 x 19.1 inches)
Verso text: Latin
Condition: Old coloured, centrefold split reinforced.
Condition RaVan der Krogt 4, 3212, State 1; Fauser, 10403 and 7989; Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg, p.256.

From: Civitates Orbis Terrarum. . Liber tertius. Köln, G. Kempen, 1581-88. (Koeman, B&H3)

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.