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Bolsward, Stavoren, Harlingen, Hindelopen by Braun & Hogenberg 1599

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

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Bolzvardia vetus in Frisia Foederis Anzae teurinicae Op. [on sheet with] Stavria, vulgo Stavere ... [and] Harlinga [and] Hindelop.

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Item Number:  22261
Category:  Antique maps > Europe > Netherlands - Cities

Antique map with four bird's-eye view plans by Braun and Hogenberg: Bolsward, Stavoren, Harlingen and Hindelopen.
The four views are made after Jacob van Deventer.

BOLSWARD

CARTOUCHE: Bolsward, an old Hanseatic Frisian town.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN (on verso): "Bolsward lies only one mile north of Sneek, and three miles from Leeuwarden. The fact that it is united with other brave and famous cities in the German Hanseatic League is evidence that it was considered to be an old and famous city in earlier times. Thus, in provincial diets and other assemblies in this region, it is considered to be the first after Leeuwarden and ranks second in dignity."

STAVOREN

CARTOUCHE: Stavria, commonly known as Stavoren, a Frisian town situated at the narrowest part of the Southern Sea that bears the name Zuiderzee.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN (on verso): "Stavoren, two miles from Sloten, lies on the banks of the Southern Sea [...]. It was once such a wealthy and handsome trade city that it was one of the chief cities in the German Hanseatic League. And although it lost its high status altogether many years ago, it still enjoys many privileges abroad."

This is a bird's-eye view of the town from the south. In the north a castle surrounded by a moat and four bastions can be seen, as can the church in the centre of the town. Stavoren is considered to be the oldest town in Friesland. It is a port and salt was exported from here as early as the 10th century; it was granted a municipal charter in 1060. In the 14th century little remained to show that it had once been prosperous; its temporary use as a naval base during the Guelders War did not lead to a lasting revival.

HARLINGEN

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN (on verso): "Harlingen lies at the entrance of the Zuiderzee, far to the north of the other sea towns [...]. It has a fine and well-fortified castle, together with a harbour that is very convenient for seafarers not only because of its width and capacity but also of the location of the town."

This is a bird's-eye view of the town from the south. The most prominent features are the castle surrounded by a moat, and the Romanesque Grote Kerk, which is to the southeast of the town, outside the walls. Harlingen was created from two dwelling mounds that are still distinctly recognizable. It was granted a municipal charter in 1234 and maintained commercial ties with Hamburg, Denmark and the Baltic countries, but it never joined the Hanseatic League. Harlingen became the last Frisian port with access to the North Sea after completion of the dam in 1932.

HINDELOOPEN

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN (on verso): "Hindeloopen is located not far from Stavoren and stretches into the sea like a promontory, exposed to the waves not just at a point but on all sides. The town is thus in perpetual danger of destruction, despite the effort put into the building of sturdy, broad and high embankments (thrown up to restrain the tempestuous sea and to protect the town and the neighbouring fields from its violence). This is a bird's-eye view from the south of the little town projecting into the sea; canals permit small boats to sail into the centre of it. It is known that there was a settlement here in the 8th century AD. The town was granted a municipal charter in 1372 and was one of the 11 Frisian cities. In the 14th century it was an important Hanseatic city, maintaining trade ties mainly with Scandinavia. These trade activities are indicated by the sailing ship anchored before the city. (Taschen)

Date of the first edition: 1588
Date of this map: 1599

Copper engraving
Size: 36 x 44.5cm (14 x 17.3 inches)
Verso text: Latin
Condition: Old coloured, excellent.
Condition Rating: A
References: Van der Krogt 4, 541; Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg, p. 292.

From: Liber quartus Urbium Praecipuarum totius Mundi. Cologne, Bertram Buchholtz, 1599. (Van der Krogt 4, 41:1.4(1599))

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.