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Groningen, Brouwershaven and Gorinchem, by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg.

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

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Groeninga, sive ut alij, Gruninga, Frisiae urb, ... ([on sheet with] Bouersavia, eius Insule in Zelandia oppidum, .. [and] Goricum, nobile Hollandiae Oppidum - Georg Braun & Frans Hogenberg, 1612.

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Item Number:  22319
Category:  Antique maps > Europe > Netherlands - Cities

Old map with three bird's-eye views by Braun and Hogenberg,: Groningen, Brouwershaven and Gorinchem.

Second state: Gorinchem is mentioned as a Hollandisch town.

GRONINGEN

TRANSLATION OF CARTOUCHE TEXT: Groninga, also Groningen, is a well-known city in Frisia, well armed against hostile attacks and famed as a capital.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Groningen is the capital of Frisia and takes its name from its first founder, Gruno. [...] At that time it was protected not by walls, but only by wooden posts; in 1110 it was made safe against all attacks from enemies by means of walls, moats and towers. Groningen is now a powerful and populous city embellished with tall spires and splendid houses."

This panoramic view shows Groningen from the north on a small hill: characteristic are the densely packed houses and the Martinitoren, a tall tower in the middle. In the 13th century the city attained great importance because of its favourable position, and it became a Hanseatic city in 1282. Many merchants settled here and Groningen developed into a flourishing trade centre. In 1536 the city passed first to the Habsburgs and finally in 1594 to the United Netherlands. In 1614 the university was founded.

BROUWERSHAVEN

TRANSLATION OF CARTOUCHE TEXT: Brouwershaven is a town on the Island of Zeeland, which also bears the cognomen of Scaldia after the River Scalde.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Zeeland lies on the sea and is spread across numerous islands; richly populated villages, settlements and dairy farms are found there, as well as splendid noblemen's and town houses and palaces, e.g. Haamstede, Moermondt etc., also a not ignoble stronghold that is called Brouwershaven. It is a small and well-built town, whose inhabitants go out to sea and are industrious fishermen, because fish is exported from Brouwershaven to various parts of the world."

The farmhouses in the foreground and the absence of city fortifications lend Brouwershaven a primarily rural character. The town arose in the middle of the 12th century as a port on the Island of Schouwen-Duiveland, directly on Lake Grevelingen in the northern Netherlandish province of Zeeland. It owes its name ("brewers' port") to its earlier involvement in the beer trade: due to the lack of spring water, Zeeland in the Middle Ages had no brewery of its own and so had to import its beer from Holland. The large church of Sint-Nicolaas (left) was begun in 1325, but the town hall would not be built until 1599. After economically difficult times, in the mid-19th century Brouwerhaven enjoyed renewed prosperity when it temporarily took over Rotterdam's role as a point of transhipment for goods and passengers travelling overseas.

GORINCHEM

CARTOUCHE: Gorinchem, a notable town in Flanders.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "Past the town of Gorinchem flows the Waal, one of the three distributaries through which the Rhine empties into the ocean. From a high tower here one can see in total 22 towns, all well fortified with city walls, as well as many dairy farms and noblemen's houses. There are also very fertile pastures here, which enable the inhabitants to produce butter, milk and cheese, which they export to Antwerp and other cities."

It is clear at first sight that fishing is also a tradition in the town of Gorinchem, seen here in side view. Located in the province of South Holland, Gorinchem was already a walled farming and fishing village by around 1000 and was eventuallly granted its charter in 1382. The Gothic Grote Kerk, with its Sint-Jans tower some 60 m high, was built in the second half of the 15th century - in the illustration it dominates all the other buildings in the town. In 1566 Gorinchem's population became Protestant, and during the Eighty Years' War a number of Catholic clergymen were murdered here by Geuzen (Netherlandish freedom fighters). After a period of economic decline, the town revived in the 19th century with the building of the railway and of inland canals.

Date of the first edition: 1572
Date of this map: 1612

Copper engraving
Size: 33.5 x 46.5cm (13.1 x 18.1 inches)
Verso text: Latin
Condition: Uncoloured, excellent.
Condition Rating: A
References: Van der Krogt 4, 1653, State 2; Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg, p.79.

From: Civitates Orbis Terrarum, Liber Primus. Cologne, Petrus von Brachel, 1612. (Van der Krogt 4, 41:1.1(1612))

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.