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Burgos - San Sebastian by Braun & Hogenberg 1582

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

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Burgos celebris et antiqua Hispaniae civitas, ... [on sheet with] Sanct. Sebastianum vulgo Donosien ad Occanum ...

€300  ($354 / £258)
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Item Number:  14159
Category:  Antique maps > Europe > Spain and Portugal
References: Van der Krogt 4 - 706 State 3 (without privilege); Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg - p.52

Two bird's-eye views on one sheet.: Burgos and San Sebastian, by Braun and Hogenberg.

BURGOS

The engraving has probably been made after a drawing by Anton van de Wyngaerde.

TRANSLATION OF CARTOUCHE TEXT: Burgos, famous old city in Spain, which also has the names Auca, Pravum Masburgum, Liconitiurgis.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "The inhabitants of this city are no idlers or vagrants, but all, men and women alike, earn their living from the work of their own hands; they are honest folk who devote themselves to handicraft and to the arts. The merchants, who multiply the city's wealth, are honest and also generous. The largest church is wondrously designed, both inside and out; inside it, divine service is celebrated at Communion, with singers and organs in five different chapels, none disturbing the other."

Burgos was developed as a stronghold against the Moors from AD 884. In 932 it became the capital of the county and in 1037 of the Kingdom of Castile. Burgos lies like an amphiteatre on a hill on the right bank of the Arlazón. The ruined citadel, the former fortress of the kings of Castile, can be clearly seen in the picture. Rising above the city is the vast Gothic cathedral. The city's commercial activities centered upon wool, cheese and cloth production, industries to which the artist refers in his staffage. By the time the Civitates orbis terrarum came to be published, Burgos's situation had taken a turn for the worse and Braun's text was no longer wholly accurate. In 1565 the city was namely struck by the plague, which claimed the lives of almost half its population, and economic setbacks and migration further weakened the city over a prolonged period. Burgos, or more accurately Vivar 7 km away, is the birthplace of the Spanish national hero El Cid, who distinguished himself in battle against the Moors in the 11th century.

SAN SEBASTIÁN

The engraving has been made after a drawing by Georg Hoefnagel.

CARTOUCHE: San Sebastián, commonly known as Donostia, on the Atlantic, important town in the province of Guipúzcoa.

COMMENTARY BY BRAUN: "This town is very famous for its wide harbour, in which ships find a safe anchorage during stormy seas and strong winds. Since it was built not by the hard work and skill of man but by careful hand of Nature, it is well known amongst many German merchants, above all, however, amongst the Cantabrian merchants who transport all sorts of wares here and also export them again. The town also possesses fertile fields for producing grain, wine and wool. The Pyrenees begin four Spanish miles away."

San Sebastián's favourable seaside location on the Bay of La Concha (The Shell), in the north of the Iberian Peninsula between Monte Igueldo and Monte Urgull with the small rocky Island on Santa Clara, is clearly illustrated in the engraving. The buildings of the town appear cramped and no details can be identified. It is nevertheless clear that the view shows San Sebastián after its reconstruction; in January 1489 a blaze had namely destroyed almost all the buildings in the town, which had been constructed chiefly of wood. Having been rebuilt, the town subsequently became the base of the Cantabrian armada. On a rocky outcrop on the left-hand edge of the picture is the martyred figure of St Sebastian, from whom the town takes its name. (Taschen)

Date of the first edition: 1572
Date of this map: 1582

Copper engraving
Size: 33 x 47cm (12.8 x 18.3 inches)
Verso text: German
Condition: Uncoloured, a few small stains, age-toned.
Condition Rating: B
References: Van der Krogt 4, 706, State 3 (without privilege); Taschen, Braun and Hogenberg, p.52.

From: Beschreibung und Contrafactur der vornembster Stät der Welt. [Part 1] Cologne, Gottfried von Kempen, 1582. (Van der Krogt 4, 41:2.1)

Braun G. & Hogenberg F. and the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

The Civitates Orbis Terrarum, or the "Braun & Hogenberg", is a six-volume town atlas and the greatest book of town views and plans ever published: 363 engravings, sometimes beautifully coloured. It was one of the best-selling works in the last quarter of the 16th century. Georg Braun wrote the text accompanying the plans and views on the verso. A large number of the plates were engraved after the original drawings of Joris Hoefnagel (1542-1600), who was a professional artist. The first volume was published in Latin in 1572, the sixth volume in 1617. Frans Hogenberg created the tables for volumes I through IV, and Simon van den Neuwel created those for volumes V and VI. Other contributors were cartographer Daniel Freese, and Heinrich Rantzau. Works by Jacob van Deventer, Sebastian Münster, and Johannes Stumpf were also used. Translations appeared in German and French.

Following the original publication of Volume 1 of the Civitates in 1572, seven further editions of 1575, 1577, 1582, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1612 can be identified. Vol.2, first issued in 1575, was followed by further editions in 1597 and in 1612. The next volumes appeared in 1581, 1588, 1593, 1599 and 1606. The German translation of the first volume appeared from 1574 on and the French edition from 1575 on.

Several printers were involved: Theodor Graminaeus, Heinrich von Aich, Gottfried von Kempen, Johannis Sinniger, Bertram Buchholtz and Peter von Brachel, who all worked in Cologne.

Georg Braun (1541-1622)

Georg Braun was born in Cologne in 1541. After his studies in Cologne he entered the Jesuit Order as a novice. In 1561 he obtained his bachelor's degree and in 1562 his Magister Artium. Although he left the Jesuit Order, he studied theology, gaining a licentiate in theology.

Frans Hogenberg (1535-1590)

Frans Hogenberg was a Flemish and German painter, engraver, and mapmaker. He was born in Mechelen as the son of Nicolaas Hogenberg.

By the end of the 1560s Frans Hogenberg was employed upon Abraham Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published in 1570; he is named as engraver of numerous maps. In 1568 he was bannend from Antwerp by the Duke of Alva and travelled to London, where he stayed a few years before emigrating to Cologne. There he immediately embarked on his two most important works, the Civitates published from 1572 and the Geschichtsblätter, which appeared in several series from 1569 until about 1587.

Thanks to such large scale projects as the Geschichtsblätter and the Civitates, Hogenberg's social circumstances improved with each passing year. He died as a wealthy man in Cologne in 1590.

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